An investigation into the impact of employee empowerment on organizational commitment

The case of Zajil International Telecom Company of Jordan

  • Abdul Azeez Badir Alnidawi College of Business, Al-Zaytoonah University
  • Yousif College of Business, Al-Zaytoonah University
Keywords: Employee Empowerment, Power, Knowledge, Self-determination, Work-impact, Organizational Commitment, Affective, Continuance & Normative

Abstract

The main purpose of this study is investigating the impact of the employee empowerment main dimensions (Power, Knowledge, Self-Determination & work-Impact) on organizational commitment types (Affective, normative and continuance) at Zajil International Telecom Company of Jordan. A sample of 220 employees (the whole technical and managerial staff) was chosen from a total population of 300 employees working at the Zajil International Telecom Company. A 6 Parts questionnaire was developed, academically refereed, modified and the distributed, where 217 questionnaires were correctly filled in by the participants and delivered to the researchers which were later used for conducting relevant statistical testing. The main results of this study have indicated that employee empowerment in terms of (power, knowledge, self-determination, & work-impact) has a significant positive impact on organizational commitment key types (affective, continuance & normative). This result is considered as the originality of this study. The main objective of this study (To determine to what extent that the impact of employee empowerment on organizational commitment at Zajil International Telecom Company is moderated by nationality and job title of employees) has been met. The main limitation of the study was the poor cooperation of the company managers with the research team

References

1- Ali, N. (2013). Effects of Employees’ Empowerment on Employees’ Commitment to Organization and Employees’ Turnover Intention (An Empirical Evidence from Banking Industry of KPK, Pakistan). 3rd International Conference on Management, Economics and Social Sciences (ICMESS'2013) January 8-9, 2013 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).
2- Best, J. (1994). Social Progress and Social Problems: Toward a sociology of gloom. The Sociological Quarterly, 42(1), 1-12
3- Berraies, S., Chaher, M., and Ben Yahia, K. (2014). Employee Empowerment and Its Importance for Trust, Innovation and Organizational Performance. Business Management and Strategy ISSN 2157-6068 2014, Vol. 5, No. 2, pp. 82-103.
4- Bline, D.M., Duchon, D., and Mexinar, W.F.,( 1991). The measurement of organizational and professional commitment: An examination of the psychometric properties of two commonly used instruments. Behavioral Research in Accounting 3, 1-12.
5- Bu Salem, Abu Baker. (2012). The Effect of Employees Empowerment On Organizational Loyalty “A field study on Algerian Sonatrach Oil Company ".(Thesis submitted for MBA degree at Aal Albait University at Jordan. [Arabic]
6- Bowen, D.E. and Lawler, E.E., III (1995). Empowering service employees. Sloan Management Review, 36(4), 73-84.
7- Britannica, E. (1998). The definition of Loyalty. Retrieved from http://www.web2010.com.marceric/archive/arc3.htm.
8- Becker, T.E., Randal, D.M, & Riegel, C.D.(1995).The multidimensional view of commitment and theory of reasoned action: A comparative evaluation. Journal of Management 21 (4), 617–638.
9- Chan, Yuen H., Nadler, S. Scott., and Hargis, Michael B., ( 2015 )" Attitudinal and behavioral Outcomes of Employees’ Psychological empowerment: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach." Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict Volume 19, Number 1, 2015. pp24 -41.
10- Conger, J.A., Kanungo, R.N. (2013). The empowerment process: integrating theory and practice. Academy of Management Review, 13. 471-82.
11- Dessler, Gary. (2013). Human Resource Management, 13th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc., publishing
As Prentice Hall.
12- Cacciope, R. (1998). Structured empowerment: an award-winning program at the Burswood Resort Hotel. Leadership and Organizational Development Journal, Vol.19, No.5, pp.264-274
13- Choudhury, A. and Giri, D. V. (2013). Employee Empowerment: The Rourkela Steel Plant Experience. The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, Vol. 48, No. 4, April, 201, pp 634-650.
14- Daft, R. (2010). Organization Theory and Design, 10th Edition. South-Western College: Thompson Learning
15- Dude, J.D. (2012). Organizational commitment of principals: The effects of job autonomy, empowerment, and distributive justice. Thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Philosophy, degree in Educational Policy and Leadership Studies in the Graduate College of The University of Iowa.
16- Eskildsen, JK. and Nussler, ML. (2012). The managerial drivers of employee satisfaction and loyalty. Total Quality Management, 11 (4/5/6): 581-588
17- Ewin, R. E. (1993). Corporate loyalty: Its objects and its ground. Journal of Business Ethics.
18- Fernandez, S. and Moldogaziev, T. (2013). Employee Empowerment, Employee Attitudes, and Performance: Testing a Causal Model. Public Administration Review, Vol. 73, Iss. 3, pp. 490–5
19- George, Elizabeth. (2013). A Study on the Effect of Psychological Empowerment on Job Satisfaction and Job Related Stress among the Bank employees. Thesis Submitted to the Cochin University of Science and Technology for the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy under the Faculty of Social Sciences.
20- Ghorbani, Mahmoud. and Ahmadi, Shahnaz. (2011). Relationship Between Employee's Empowerment Dimensions and Creativity Improvement in Educational Organizations. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 10 (2): 213-217, 2011 ISSN 1990-9233. IDOSI Publications, 2011.
21- Heathfield, Susan M. (2016). Failing to Empower Employees to Make Decisions. Available at
https://www.thebalance.com/failing-to-empower-employees-to-make-decisions-1918506.
22- Hackney, C. W. (2012). Personality, Organizational Commitment, and Job Search Behavior: A Field Study. Doctoral Dissertations submitted at University of Tennessee, Knoxville.
23- Huang, J. (2012). Be proactive as empowered? The role of trust in one’s supervisor in psychological empowerment, feedback seeking and job performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 42 Suppl. 1, pp. 103- 127.
24- Hellriegel, D. and Slocum, Jr. J.W. (2008). Organizational Behavior. South Western, Thompson Learning.
25- Hart, D. W., and Thompson, J. A. (2007). Untangling Employee Loyalty: A Psychological Contract Perspective. Business Ethics Quarterly, 17(2): 297-323.
26- Iden, L. M. (2014). Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment in Multicultural Work Environments in Norway. Master thesis in International Business at Norwegian School of Economics. Bergen, Spring 2014.
27- Iqbal, A., Tufail, M. S., and Lodhi, R. N. (2015). Employee Loyalty and Organizational Commitment in Pakistani Organizations. Global Journal of Human Resource Management.Vol.3,No.1, Pp.1-11, January 2015.
28- Jafari, V., Mordi, M., and Ahanchi, M. (2013). An examination of the relationship between empowerment and organizational commitment (Case study Kurdistan province electric staff). Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research 860 APRIL 2013 VOL 4, NO 12.
29- Jha, S. (2010). Influence of psychological empowerment on affective, normative and Continuance commitment: A study in Indian IT industry. International Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 15 No. 1, pp. 53-72
30- Kaakkolammi, Kari (2009). Managing organizational Commitment through Human Resource practices. Case: A Medium-Sized Finish Service Company. Master’s thesis submitted at University of Tampere, August 2009.
31- Kariuki, A., and Murimi, C. (2015). Employee Empowerment and Organization Performance of Tata Chemicals Magadi Ltd, Kenya. European Journal of Business and Management, Vol.7, No.8, 2015. Pp. 190-200.
32- Khan, M. K., Tariq, A., Hamayoun, A. A., and Bhutta, M. H. (2014). Enhancing Organizational Commitment Through Employee Empowerment - Empirical Evidence from Telecom Sector Employees. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 21 (1): 148-157, 2014.
33- Lee, S. S. (2008). Relationships among leadership empowerment, job satisfaction, and employee loyalty in university dining student workers. Retrospective theses and dissertations. A dissertation submitted to the graduate faculty in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Major: Foodservice and Lodging Management. Iowa State University. Ames, Iowa.
34- Mehrabani, S. E., and Shajari, M. (2013). Relationship between Employee Empowerment and Employee Effectiveness. Service Science and Management Research (SSMR) Volume 2 Issue 4, December 2013, pp 60-68.
35- Mehta, S., Singh, T., Bhakar, S., & Sinha, B. (2010). Employee Loyalty towards Organization. 98- 108
36- Melhem, Yahya. (2003). Employee-Customer-Relationships: An Investigation Into the impact of Customer-Contact Employees' Capabilities on Customer Satisfaction In Jordan Banking Sector. Thesis Submitted to the University of Nottingham for the Degree of Doctor of philosophy.
37- Melhem, Y., (2004). The antecedents of customer-contact employees’ empowerment. Employee Relations Journal, 26(1), 72-93.
38- Melhem, Y. (2006). Prerequisites of employee empowerment: the case of Jordanian mobile phone companies. Jordan Journal of Business Administration, 2(4), 585-598.
39- Menon, S.T. (1999). Psychological empowerment: definition, measurement, and validation. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 31(3), pp.161-4
40- Menon, S.T. (2001). Employee empowerment: an integrative psychological approach. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50 (1), 153-80.
41- Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N.J. (1991). A three-Component Conceptualization of Organizational Commitment. Human resource management Review. Volume 1 ,Number 1, 1991, pp. 61-89.
42- Meyer, J.P., Stanley, D.J., Jackson, T.A., McInnis, K.J., Maltin, E.R., & Sheppard, L. (2012). Affective, normative, and continuance commitment levels across cultures: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 225–245
43- Muafi. (2012). The Role of Employees’ Attitudinal Loyalty towards Behavioral Loyalty. IRACST-International Journal of Research in Management & Technology (IJRMT), Vol. 2, No. 3, June 2012. Pp. 348-251
44- Meyer, J.P., Allen, N.J., and Smith, C.A. (1997). Commitment to organizations and occupations: Extension and test of a three-component conceptualization. Journal of Applied Psychology 78, 538-551.
45- Mustafa, E. M. A., and Bon, A. (2012). Role of Employee Empowerment in Organization Performance: A review Research. journal of Social Science & management .Volume: 02, Number: 06, October 2012.Pp 79 -83.
46- Powers, E. L. (2000). Employee loyalty in the new millennium. S.A. M. Advanced Management Journal, 65(3), 4-8.
47- Peachey, Gladys A. (2002). The Effect of Leader Empowering Behaviors on Staff Nurses Workplace. Empowerment, Psychological Empowerment, Organizational Commitment, and Absenteeism. A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies in Partial fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree Doctor of Clinical Health Sciences (Nursing) McMaster University, June, 2002.
48- Reichheld, F. 2003. The one number you need to grow. Harvard Business Review. (December).
49- Roller, W. K. (1998). Measuring Empowerment: The Perception of Empowerment Instrument
(PEI). https://www.nhqualitycampaign.org/files/PEI.pdf
50- Saxon, N. L. (2012). Understanding organizational Commitment and Satisfaction of TACOM Life Cycle Management Command Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics Associates. A Thesis Submitted to Lawrence Technological University (LTU) College of Management in partial fulfillment of the degree of Master of Science in Global Leadership and Management & to the Defense Acquisition University (DAU) Midwest Region partial fulfillment of the requirement of the Senior Service College Fellowship (SSCF) Program. Lawrence Technological University. Southfield, Michigan
51- Solomon, C. M. (1992). The loyalty factor. Personnel Journal, 71(9), 5
52- Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: Construct definition, measurement, and validation. Academy of Management, 38, 1442–1465
53- Sekaran, U. (2003). Research Methods for Business, 4th ed, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 5.
54- Thomas, K.W., and Velthouse, B.A. (1990). Cognitive elements of empowerment: an interpretive model of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15, 666-681.
55- Taylor, J. (2013). Goal setting in the Australian Public Service: Effects on psychologic empowerment and organizational citizenship behavior. Public Administration Review, Vol. 73 No.3, pp. 453
56- Towns, P. A. (2010). The Case for a Three Dimensional Employee Empowerment Model. http://www.employeeempowermentinstitute.com/3D_Employee_Empowerment_Model.pdf
57- Tubey, R., Rotich, K.J., & Kurgat, A. (2015). History, Evolution and Development of Human Resource Management: A Contemporary Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management www.iiste.org ISSN 2222-1905 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2839 (Online) Vol.7, No.9, 2015.
58- Teimouri, H., Izadpanah, N., Akbariani, S., Jenab, K., Khoury, S., and Moslehpour, S. (2015). The Effect of Managerial Power on Employees' Affective Commitment: Case Study. Journal of Management Policies and Practices December 2015, Vol. 3, No. 2, pp. 21-30
59- Vugt, van, M.,and Hart., C.M. (2004). Social Identity as Social Glue: The Origin of Group Loyalty. Journal of Personality and Psychology 2004, .86, No. 4, 585-598.
60- Zeglat, D., Aljaber, M., and Alrawabdeh, W. (2014). Understating the Impact of Employee Empowerment on Customer-Oriented Behavior. Journal of Business Studies Quarterly 2014
Published
2019-06-28
How to Cite
Alnidawi, A. A. B., & Yousif , A. S. H. (2019). An investigation into the impact of employee empowerment on organizational commitment. Review of Applied Socio-Economic Research, 17(1), 18-33. Retrieved from https://www.reaser.eu/ojs/ojs-3.1.2-1/index.php/REASER/article/view/9